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The 1988 Motín del Hesperia: can Barcelona now learn from it?

Amal Ghosh



Header Image by Josep Lago / AFP via Getty Images

It has been over 32 years since the 1988 Motín del Hesperia, considered the greatest rebellion from the players against their president at Barcelona. Is there something to be learned and applied to the current crisis at the club?

On 28 April 1988, the clock ticked five on a warm Thursday afternoon. The players of the first team of FC Barcelona gathered at a rather unusual location. It was three kilometers from the Camp Nou, at a hotel in Els Vergós street called Hesperia. Twenty-two players, and the head coach Luis Argonés, sat in front of the press and declared revolution against the club management by denouncing then-president Josep Lluís Núñez and his syndicates for the inhumane and unprofessional treatment of the players and the club.

‘El Motín del Hesperia’ or ‘The mutiny of Hesperia’ is remembered as the most convoluted turmoil in the history of FC Barcelona. Moreover, it was the first time in the history of Spanish football that a professional squad of social and sporting relevance such as Barcelona addressed the public to condemn the management. Thirty-two years later, the club is going through yet another darkened and melancholic period. This demands our attention to revisit the infamous crisis in the past to understand and possibly delve into the context to convene its relevance in this brand new crisis.

Josep Lluís Núñez, son of a customs officer, was born in Barakaldo, in the Basque province, in 1931. Núñez went on to build the biggest construction company in Catalunya, called Núñez i Navarro. He was elected the president of FC Barcelona for the first time on 1 July 1978 and went on to create a legacy for himself and the club. Núñez’s presidential tenure at the club was considered to be one of the most successful in terms of a brimming trophy cabinet.

Having built a business empire, Núñez emphasised more on the business aspects of the club, thereby providing financial stability to transmute the club into a commercial entity. However, the mutiny of Hesperia transformed Núñez into one of the most controversial figures in the history of the club.

There was a long chain of events that both sporting and management resonated in this mutiny. In 1987, Núñez deployed a new business model, which would allow the club to pay fewer taxes on the player wages. Under this new policy, the club was able to transfer half of the player wages into an image rights contract, which were significantly less taxed. This model was highly beneficial for the club and footballers, as they would receive a higher portion of their wage. Since then, everything went peaceful as both the management and players were in terms.

Nevertheless, moving on to next year everything was going wrong for Barcelona. The 1988 season was absolutely irregular and devastating for the team. Luis Aragonés, who endeavoured a counter-attacking style at Barça, took advantage of the fast and agile profiles of ‘el Lobo’ Carrasco and Gary Lineker upfront. But his tactics were out of place on the pitch and results were not promising. Barcelona had already surrendered La Liga to Madrid with a 23-point difference and four matches left to finish the season. Things were not different in the European competition, as they were knocked out by Bayern Leverkusen.

The late Luis Aragonés, legendary Atlético de Madrid and Spain coach, did not enjoy a too bright spell at Barcelona, though he inherited a poor situation from previous manager Terry Venables | Photo by Jamie McDonald via Getty Images

To make matters worse, there was an inquiry by the Spanish authorities into the club’s new business model and the verdict went against the club. The inspections arrived and demanded the club to reinstall the wage contracts in accordance with the La Liga regulations. The players approached the management in good faith, demanding that the club persuade the authority either to validate the set-up or to make the difference. On the other hand, the fans were protesting and inculpating Núñez for the disappointing campaign. Already in a tough position with the fans protesting for the resignation, Núñez managed to overturn the situation to put blame on the players.

Barcelona had lifted the Copa del Rey after beating Real Sociedad in the final. The squad and Aragonés gained confidence back from the fans. Still, Núñez declined any agreement between the management and players regarding the tax violation and demanded the players to repay the tax due back themselves. Furthermore, Núñez had his priorities and he favoured some players over others. Outraged by the decision, the squad mobilised under captain José Ramón Alexanko and coach Aragonés and assembled at the Hesperia hotel to register the discontent openly.

The press hall was crowded with journalists and captain Alexanko presided over the meeting. He presented a seven-point statement in which the management and Núñez, in particular, was denounced of having “deceived, humiliated and disappointed” the club. They were determined for the resignation of the board, thereby establishing tranquillity and stability at the club. They accused Núñez of dehumanising the institution’s values that embodied the idiosyncrasy of Catalan football.

The Motín del Hesperia was a turning point for Barcelona as it led to the return of Johan Cruyff as a coach and the start of a very bright era for the club | Photo by Jasper Juinen via Getty Images

The aftermath of the mutiny was rather unexpected and resulted in one of the biggest restructurings in the history of the club. The mutiny had failed and didn’t accomplish anything since Núñez was able to change the spotlight to the players. The perception of fans changed the fate of the mutiny, as they indicted the squad for the miserable and surreal season. The footballers were considered a bunch of tainted mercenaries and the fans demanded a total restructuring. There were banners from the fans supporting Núñez and rejecting the players for organising such a revolution.

As the fans turned in favour of Núñez, he went ahead for a massive clean-up. This resulted in an exodus of players and the appointment of a certain Johan Cruyff as the new manager. Only ten footballers remained in the team, including two of the main figures of the uprising such as defender Alexanko, who was favoured by Cruyff for his project, and goalkeeper Andoni Zubizarreta. Núñez rebuilt the squad with the help of Cruyff and went on to have one of the greatest eras in the history of the club.                                             

Now, the mutiny of Hesperia may have floundered to achieve its purpose, but it is a reminder of how the collective response from the squad had such an impact on the club. If not for the unexpected reactions from the fans, the board and Núñez may have been relinquished from the power. So what is the relevance of the Hesperia mutiny now?

This ongoing turmoil may have been an entirely different precedent, yet the common factor remains the lack of high-quality management. There are things from the 1988 mutiny that we can learn and possibly not repeat in this new crisis. It is important to examine different perspectives and contexts before arriving at a judgment.

After an astoundingly disappointing season, the players were already threatened and it is impossible for them to denounce the management. Even so, the feud between Lionel Messi and president Josep Maria Bartomeu assembled the fans against the management. At this point, it is important for the squad to mobilise and respond as a collective. It is pertinent for the squad to express their discontent against a management that lacks ambition and diverts away from what the club stands for.

“We have a sporting crisis, not an institutional or club one”

Josep Maria Bartomeu, on 18 August 2020 after Barcelona’s debacle against Bayern Munich

In the case of Hesperia mutiny, the fans were divided and some were in agreement with Núñez. Since Messi has become the prime figure in the present crisis, the squad can come out in support of him, which would help them to gain the trust back from the fans. Even though Ronald Koeman was appointed and has already announced a restructuring for the club, it is vital for the club to have a board with ambition and respect for its heritage. Núñez was able to rebuild the squad and had an immediate successful campaign. But is it worth taking any more chances with this board?

Since this board was elected, the club has lacked a high level of sporting quality. There were improper, irrational and irrelevant decisions culminating to this downfall. It is up to the players now to decide whether to defend the badge they are wearing or to stay in their safe zones. While the club is going through a moral and identity crisis, it is in the hands of the players to take the step and expose the disagreements in the open. The history of both Catalunya and Barcelona constitutes the stories of revolution and resilience. It is time for another one. 

The reason why I am a football aficionado is that I played football and it made sense to me when nothing else did. But, Barça is what makes football exquisite for me. Growing up in a context brimmed with stories of oppression, freedom and revolution, Barça offered me something inspiring and invigorating. Writing about the club and being part of this amazing journey is an absolute delight.



Josep Samitier, the artist and hero of Barcelona’s first golden age

Amal Ghosh



Header Image by FC Barcelona

Josep Samitier was a surrealist artist on and off the pitch and a legendary midfielder that brought Barcelona its first successful era in the 1920s, as well as some controversy throughout his career.

Surrealism, a deceptive interrogation of reality that transcends the human subconscious to manipulate or alter the coherent understanding of existence. Josep Samitier Vilalta, or “L’home llagosta” (The lobster man) was the most surreal portrait in the history of FC Barcelona. He was called the ‘surrealista’, because his genius produced the illusions on the pitch that were perplexing to fathom as reality.

History is constructed up on the interdependency of figures and events. Samitier was one of those figures who created a rift in the annals of world football to produce the first reverberation of football in the streets of Barcelona. The footballing revolution in Catalonia peaked in the early 1920s, especially in Barcelona, as it was the beginning of the first golden age.

With the construction of the Les Corts stadium, the club assembled a group of talented, young players. Josep Samitier, along with Paulino Alcántara, Ricardo Zamora, Emili Sagi-Barba, Vicenç Piera and Agustín Sancho became the first generation of the club idols. Samitier, among others, was an integral part of Barcelona’s rebuilding of character and went on to become one of the most significant personalities both in terms of sporting and cultural relevance.

Samitier was born on 2nd February 1902 in a Catalan working-class family. As a young boy in the streets of Barcelona where the roads of passion and dreams lead to the grant Les Corts, ‘El Sami’ would kick the ball around waving at the passing commons.

After the club’s establishment, FC Barcelona had quite an attachment with the proletarian class. Especially at the time of industrial unrest, the institution always kept them close and the stadium was always packed with the same working-class populace. Young minds like Samitier who would grow up in the streets of Barcelona always had the ball on their feet and club in their heart.

Samitier started playing for FC Internacional before making his debut for Barcelona at the age of 17 in 1919. The club museum still preserves and cherishes his signing bonuses, a shimmering watch and a three-piece suit. By 1925, Samitier became the highest-paid player at the club and thus became the highest-earning player in the country.

The division of labour was evident in the early years of European football. Whilst the backline remained static to protect the goal, the forward line had to pick and fight the battle on their own. Samitier was among the key figures who created a paradigm shift from this prevailing ‘Basque style’, where the attackers held the sole responsibility to win the ball and navigate their own way to find a goal. Samitier was among the first players to orchestrate the game from the back. He was like a master of the opera performance where he controlled and navigated the rhythm and flow of the game.

Emili Sagi-Barba Vicenç Piera Josep Samitier Barcelona

Josep Samitier (middle), alongside teammates Emili Sagi-Barba (left) and Vicenç Piera (right) from the successful Barcelona team of the 1920s | Photo by FC Barcelona

Samitier was an exceptional player who could manipulate the ball like a wizard, and he dribbled the ball around the pitch like a ballet dancer. He was the first midfielder general in the history of Spanish football, whose role was the hybrid between a Pivote (central midfielder) and the Leñero (chopper) or sweeper. Samitier was the harbinger of the modern-day box-to-box role. Despite being positioned in a deep-lying role, Samitier was an outstanding goalscorer. It was rather unusual for a midfielder of that time to score an astonishing 184 goals for any club in Europe.

Even though Barcelona was graced with many prolific players, Samitier was the core of the magnificent Barça team of the 1920s. He would hack the ball from the opposition to carry the ball from the midfield to provide a line-breaking pass in the final third. His glorious days at Les Corts were filled with thrilling langosta (lobster) kicks which would eventually evolve into the modern ‘chilena’ or bicycle-kick. Samitier was an entertainer on the pitch. His ostentatious performance attracted the Catalans into the stadium.

His glittering thirteen years in a blaugrana shirt were decorated with 11 Catalan Championships, 5 Spanish Championships and the first Spanish league that began in 1928. Moreover, his time with Barça was embellished with title-winning goals in the Copa del Rey finals of 1922, 1925, 1926 and 1928.

Pepe Samitier’s momentous career at Barcelona transformed him from a sporting figure to a cultural icon in Catalan society. His reputation at the club produced a strong political outline for himself among the intellectuals in the society. It was an unprecedented period in the socio-cultural scenario of Europe. The entrée of subjective art and understanding by Salvador Dalí, Edvard Munch and Vincent van Gogh among other artistic prominence overtook the existing concepts of impressionism and naturalism.

Samitier aligned with surrealism, indulging the spirit of subjectivity. He reflected this both in the game and in his outside loyalties. His acquaintances mostly consist of radical artists and political figures of the time, including the tango maestro Carlos Gardel, Mauricio Chevalier, Salvador Dalí and, in contrast to his idol figure in Catalonia, he also had a close relationship with the dictator Franco.

In 1933, after a dramatic feud with the Barcelona management, an ageing El Sami dropped from the first team. Real Madrid, then called Madrid CF, took advantage of this dispute and were able to convince him to join the club. However, it was his secret allegiance with General Franco that helped Madrid to accomplish the operation.

Even though his short stint at Madrid wasn’t really celebrated, Samitier did guide them to win the La Liga title in 1932/33 and the Copa de España in 1934. But he played a significant role for Madrid, not as a player but as a super-agent in a decade-defining transfer of Alfredo Di Stéfano, whose intended destination was Barcelona. This signing was the inflexion point for Madrid in the 1960s, as Di Stéfano would go on to score 216 goals and play an important role in their European domination. Although Samitier’s allegiance with General Franco was visible, this transfer saga threw the relationship open into society.

Alfredo Di Stéfano Real Madrid Josep Samitier Barcelona

Real Madrid’s signing of Alfredo Di Stéfano (right) changed Real Madrid’s history forever | Photo by Staff / AFP via Getty Images

Before the Spanish civil war burst out in 1936, Samitier spent a brief time in managing Atlético de Madrid, succeeding Fred Pentland in the middle of the season, but failed to keep them in the first division. Nonetheless, the season was scrapped as soon as the civil war started and Samitier, who had strong ties with the nationalist side, found himself blacklisted and arrested by the anarchist militia.

Eventually, he was released by the militia and fled to France. His exile to France was later utilized by the Franco regiment to spread the anti-communist propaganda by portraying this event in a film titled ‘The Stars Search for Peace’, where Samitier enacted himself. During his time in France, Samitier joined OGC Nice as a player, where he would unite with his old teammate Zamora. He went onto score 47 goals in 82 matches. In 1939, he retired as a footballer and briefly managed OGC Nice in 1942.

After two years and 8 months, the civil war ended and the nationalists alliance under General Franco demolished the second Spanish republic to establish the new Spanish state. Josep Samitier returned to Spain in 1944, and he took charge of Barcelona. His homecoming was celebrated as he guided Barcelona to win their second-ever La Liga title in 1945 and lifted the Copa de Oro Argentina by beating the Copa del Generalísimo winners Athletic Club de Bilbao.

Subsequently, Samitier became the chief scout of the club and his keen vision in recognising the talent resulted in the discovery and recruitment of Ladislao Kubala, a player who went on to become a legend at Barcelona. The recruitment of Kubala was the status redemption for Samitier, who had lost its shine after the Di Stéfano transfer saga.

In 1972, Samitier rested his soul and left his showmanship and sorcery to cherish in the memories of Catalans. Despite serving Madrid and his close relationship with General Franco, he was given an honourable state funeral as a Catalan hero. Samitier was the most symbolic player in the history of the club. His close affiliation with both the cultural and sporting context of Barcelona formed an irrevocable stature of him in the Catalan society.

Samitier, as a footballing visionary, is a reference to the modern-day midfielders and, on the other hand, he was an imperative cultural icon who embraced a revolutionary socio-cultural movement in his life. Samitier’s journey from being an ambitious boy in the streets of Barcelona to a footballing legend remains one of the inspiring and reviving narrative in the history of the game. Even today, walking down the Josep Samitier Street, one could still gather an enigmatic chanting celebrating the greatest artist in the history of Barcelona.

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