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Analysis

Tactical analysis: Barcelona 2–8 Bayern Munich

Anurag Agate

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Header Image by Manu Fernández / Pool via Getty Images

Everything went wrong, but there are no excuses. This tactical analysis presents a detailed look at the humiliating 2–8 loss from Barcelona against Bayern Munich.


In the 2019/20 UEFA Champions League, as the draw was fleshed out and it looked like Barcelona would face Bayern Munich up next, the feeling in the blaugrana camp wasn’t the best. Barça have struggled against many teams throughout this season, a lot, lot more than usual. Bayern, however, have been like a perfect machine and have been highly impressive under the new coach, Hans-Dieter Flick.

Even though not many people as neutrals expected Barcelona to go through, nobody expected the Catalans to put in what was frankly a repulsive performance. In this tactical analysis, we will analyse where exactly Barça went wrong against Bayern Munich.

Starting XI

Barcelona

4–3–1–2
Ter Stegen
Semedo · Piqué · Lenglet · Jordi Alba
Sergi Roberto · Busquets · De Jong
Vidal
Messi · Suárez
Coach: Quique Setién

Bayern Munich

4–2–3–1
Neuer
Kimmich · Boateng · Alaba · Alphonso Davies
Thiago, Goretzka
Gnabry · Müller · Perišić
Lewandowski

The underwhelming performance by Barcelona started from the starting line-up. Quique Setién chose a diamond 4–4–2 which the manager has used before and what is a very cagey, awkward and static formation. Just Lionel Messi and Luis Suárez up front, with nobody to provide width. For Bayern, the starting line-up was the tried and tested one minus a few injuries. The differences between the two teams were apparent.

A game of high lines

The tactics adopted by both sides included in a very high defensive line. This was the core of how the game unfolded initially.

Bayern have utilised their full-backs excellently throughout this season. Joshua Kimmich came in for Benjamin Pavard at right-back with Alphonso Davies retaining his left-back spot. Kimmich provided penetrative passing and stability down the right whereas Davies provided pace and directness to the attack. Using this to their advantage, centre-backs Jérôme Boateng and David Alaba maintain a high-line and drift apart. During the build-up, Thiago Alcântara would drop back to receive and distribute the ball.

This proved to be a problem for Bayern initially, yet Barcelona found themselves suffering because of this. For Barça, quite a few times an opportunity to play the ball into the path of the runners from out wide was presented. This was because of the overloads that Messi, Nélson Semedo and Sergi Roberto attempted on the right. With Semedo and Roberto both making forward runs alternatively, Messi succeeded in putting them through on open space often. Nonetheless, Bayern adapted to this quickly, with the midfielders closing down the passing lanes when the ball was with Semedo. Davies also became much more calculated when dribbling forwards.

Barcelona Bayern Munich tactical analysis

The pressing and effective attack from Bayern penalised Barça’s extremely vulnerable defence | Photo by Manu Fernández / Pool / AFP via Getty Images

Thiago dropped back and preventing him from passing is a task and a half. His resistance to pressure, superb passing range and feints were utilised to their fullest and he had a very good game. Barcelona were unable to change this throughout the game. Even with the addition of Antoine Griezmann at half-time, it was too little and too late. Bayern were able to transition from defence to attack comfortably thanks to this.

For Barcelona, their high line caused all kinds of problems. Semedo and Jordi Alba are always instructed to move up the field and overlap when possible. With four midfielders, it should allow Barcelona to ideally have numerical supremacy in midfield which should make keeping possession easier. Still, Bayern’s intense pressing surprisingly resulted in many loose touches from the Catalan midfielders.

This was a major problem as Bayern immediately attacked each time they got possession in Barcelona half. The high line Barcelona played also led to Bayern’s long balls being especially effective. Robert Lewandowski was able to keep either Gerard Piqué or Clément Lenglet occupied. Thomas Müller would get into the box when the team was in the final third as well. This combined with the wingers tucking in and the full-backs delivering excellent crosses meant Barça very often allowed Bayern possession in the box.

Staticity

One problem that Barcelona have faced with such an aging squad is lack of fluidity and that was apparent against the Bavarians. Bayern with their highly mobile and fluid play, and Barcelona with a stiff approach with the only fluidity being because of individual talent.

When defending, Barcelona were very ineffective. Due to the high pressure Bayern employed, the azulgranas very often lost the ball and took too much time in cutting out Bayern’s passing lanes. This was a constant problem and Bayern never looked to be having any problems in getting into the final third. Quique Setién’s men would look to press after losing the ball as well but the efficiency and hunger of the Germans were much better. Barça only succeeded in 16% of the pressures they applied. Bayern were better with more than 25% but they attempted more than 30% of the pressures Barcelona applied.

“We knew that if we put them under pressure they could make mistakes. We wanted to take advantage of that and it worked out perfectly. Barcelona have an enormous quality in attack, and you could recognise certain automatic behaviour. We had to invest a great deal of effort. It was hard work for our defence, and they coped brilliantly”

Hansi Flick
Bayern manager

Furthermore, at the back, Barcelona’s defence lacked organisation. There was a visible chasm in communication between their defenders. Many times, Bayern had a free player not only outside the box but also in the box. Barça’s midfield was very slow in tracking back. Along with this, the midfielders would often press very inefficiently which allowed Bayern to pass the ball through the midfield quite comfortably.

All these problems together made Barça lack highly in possession. According to FBRef, Barcelona were disposed 16 times, and Bayern just two times. This stat does not include attempted dribbles, and is inclusive of tackles specifically but the huge gap is very visible.

The final act

Taking a look at the previous matches Barcelona have played since the resumption of football, there was always something lacking in every match. Regardless of the result, Barça never looked remotely like a team deserving the Champions League. The amount of problems which are not being addressed effectively has kept on increasing and increasing.

Against Hansi Flick’s wonderful Bayern side, the drab blaugrana team was on full display. These 90 minutes were a result of the culmination of the numerous problems resulting in a massive breakdown. For a club like Barcelona, this will remain in the culés’ hearts for a very long time. If Barcelona want to be as good a team or rather, club, as they should be, a major overhaul is going to be needed.


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18, living in India, obsessed with Barcelona and Spanish football. I am into football in any form: watching, playing, reading about, writing about...In particular, I'm very interested in youth football, especially La Masía. I try to learn more about the tactical side of football as well.

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Analysis

Why the 3-5-2 can never be a long term option for Barcelona

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Photo via Imago

Ronald Koeman’s greatest tactical revelation upon coming to Barcelona has without a shadow of a doubt been the 3-5-2 formation. Fully conscious of the frailties of the team in every department, the Dutch manager crafted out a setup with which the strengths of his players could be amplified, and their weaknesses quickly swept under the rug.

The full capacity of the setup was illustrated in the ties against Sevilla both in the league and the cup, against Paris in the UEFA Champions League, and in its full glory against Real Sociedad in Barcelona’s 1-6 annihilation of them. More than the results, the performances won back the hearts of fans. Barça were, as it seemed, back to their best, and not a single soul could deny this. Not a single soul, except perhaps Zinedine Zidane.

In the recently concluded Clasico, the Catalans endured one of their worst first halves of the season to date. Overrun defensively on every turnover, Barcelona’s seemingly airtight defence was reduced to rubble while their attack could neither get to nor could they make use of the ball. With that, their titles hopes, too, were damaged seriously.

In the second period, however, with the introduction of the 4-3-3, things changed for the better, and if not for some misfortune in the final seconds of the match, the comeback would have been completed. In this article, Barça Universal explores the identity crisis within the club, the setup’s unsustainability and the inevitable complacency that awaits the team should the formation overstay its welcome.

The lack of cohesion with club institutions

Formations are, after all, nothing more than telephone numbers; or at least that is how Pep Guardiola sees it. While this is true in principle, it is a train of logic that only applies to a certain extent.

It certainly makes a difference when one has four midfielders in comparison to when one has three, and the number of centre-backs, while a seemingly irrelevant figure, has a panoply of consequences on the shape of the team long term. The way the first team sets itself up is a reflection of what will trickle down to the academy level, but with a club that seeks a distinguishable identity from the ground up, should it not be the other way around?

Barcelona, as a football club, have the luxury of boasting one of the best academies in world football, La Masia. From the Pre-Benjamín to the Juvenil and all the way to Barça B, the academy players are inculcated with a strict set of values, intricately detailed roles with pertinent information for each position one can take up once they get to the end game, which is, for every academy player, to play for the first team.

All levels in the La Masia deploy a formation similar to the 4-3-3. (Photo via Imago)

The maintenance and furtherance of this school of thought and football ensure ease of integration into the first team, almost indifferent of age. Why so? This is due to the fact that a winger, for instance, at the tender age of 16 — while certainly inexperienced in the highest level — has all the necessary principles of what is expected of them in the big stage deeply rooted in his veins.

With coherence in the running of the club, from the academy level all the way to the first team, players have absolutely no need to be integrated into the first team. Everything that they need to do, they a priori already know, and will lead to them sailing ever so smoothly into a first-team spot. This is why players such as Ansu Fati and Oscar Mingueza have succeeded, where Nelson Semedo and Arda Turan have not.

This, of course, doesn’t mean that every single academy graduate will succeed, but merely that their presence will infinitely be of utmost utility to the club — as long as the happenings in the first team foster an environment for them to succeed in.

Most teams, as part of the La Masia, use the 4-3-3 to integrate players. This simply means that if ever a formation such as the 3-5-2 or the 3-4-3 is to be used at the club, it should not be for extensive periods of time. It renders an entire academy structure useless, and this then translates to club presidents having to spend ludicrous amounts of money to acquire players that will simply not be needed once the team eventually reverts to the core values it upholds.

Unsustainability in the face of change

If at all anyone desires to know to what extent the 3-5-2 — or any of its variants — is sustainable over the long term, one need only ask one question: Should Ronald Koeman be sacked right this instant, what formation is his successor — perhaps García Pimienta, or Xavi — going to implement once he arrives at the club?

A staunch believer in Barcelona’s core values both in style and in ethics, the Spaniard is most certainly going to revert to the 4-3-3. It is what he has known all his life, and also what the youth he trains have been instilled with over the course of their journey into first-team football. Why change what never once needed fixing?

The use of a 3-5-2 needs particular transfers to be made in order for it to be used to its highest level: a pair of strikers, a set of wingbacks, an attacking midfielder, perhaps a libero, an attacking midfielder and a double pivot. While not a complete representation of the needs of the setup — one whose use varies from manager to manager —, this is a general overview of what the 3-5-2 demands and the 4-3-3 does not.

Koeman’s 3-5-2 was a brilliant temporary fix. (Photo via Imago)

Much like it would have a negative knock-on off on the academy for the fact it does not major in these specific positions, the sheer lack of durability of the setup will be put to show once the reverse is done and the team reverts to a back four. Suddenly the team will be in need of one positional pivot, a single central striker and interiors where the attacking midfielder would be of most use.

Knowing that Barcelona as an entity simply can not keep up with this particular setup for a year, let alone three, then it stands to reason that such a setup be used only for particular circumstances rather than be a regular occurrence at the club.

Inevitable complacency

The centre-backs

Ronald Koeman’s adoption of the back three was born out of one desire; to mask the flaws of previous systems. As Barcelona came to learn following Ernesto Valverde’s tenure, putting stop-gap solutions to long-standing problems is anything but desirable, as rather than put an end to a present-day problem, all it does is stall the defence’s eventual downfall by a couple of weeks or months.

The back three masks a panoply of positional issues within the players. As has been the case with both Oscar Mingueza and Frenkie de Jong, the back three system allows one centre-back to make runs into the attacking half of the pitch. This liberty stems from the fact that regardless of what one does upfront, they are going to be covered by the remaining two centre-halves.

Not the best idea for an young CB like Mingueza. (Photo via Imago)

Additionally, most modern teams prefer to set up with a single striker. It becomes almost too easy for a backline of three to deal with a single striker pressing them or making runs between the lines. And unless you have a midfield such as Marco Verratti, Idrissa Gana Gueye, Leandro Paredes, the forwards cannot afford to stay up and pin the CBs. 

In La Liga, the go-to formation is the 4-4-2. More often than not, the two furthermost players tend to stay at a certain distance from one another, with one fixated on the centre-backs while the other rests deeper in the pitch. Given the relatively low need to stay in one’s own defensive half, one of the players in the defensive trio could easily abandon his post and embark on his own missions in the opposition half. This has happened on more than enough occasions with Mingueza, even with Sergino Dest acting as the wingback.

Thanks to heroics from Marc Andre Ter Stegen, problems pertaining to his centre-backs’ positional negligence has been mitigated, but not for much longer. Relying on the goalkeeper to cover up for their inadequacies is nothing more than a means to an end. It is their job to make saves, however, this should not now become an excuse for future complacency.

For young centre-backs like Ronald Araujo and Mingueza, this is far from ideal. Eventually, they will have to move away from a three-man system which is bound to cause trouble in paradise. 

The sages once coined that the proof of the pudding is in the eating, and there are several concrete examples to further this theory. One need only look at David Luiz’ career to get a glimpse at the long term negatives of the pursuit of a back three. Throughout his career, the Brazilian has been marred by defensive issues. His overall decision making, positional awareness and his ability to mark attackers have often been permeated with his dreadful inconsistency and woeful uncertainty.

Luiz’s career has been a defensive tragedy since 2013. (Photo via Imago)

Offensively, Luiz is a sight for sore eyes. His prowess in attack, owing to his pristine ball control, reliability under pressure and impressive passing range are rather impressive for a centre-back. Despite this, the fact that one would constantly need to have two near him for him in order for him to excel speaks volumes about his defensive ability. If anything, it was Arsenal’s 3-0 mauling of Chelsea in the Emirates back in the 2016/17 season that pushed Antonio Conte into making the switch to a back-three.

This example, and many others, illustrate the detrimental effects of a back three to the unit itself. It is a method in which a team can shoot itself in the foot. It fosters complacency in defence, and what for?

The wingbacks

Koeman has spoken highly of Jordi Alba in the past, and this season, the Spaniard has been revitalised. This has been one of his individual best offensive seasons in a Barcelona shirt — he has five goals and 13 assists from 40 appearances this season to his name, averaging more or less a goal contribution every two or so games.

The same, however, cannot be said about his defensive abilities. It is his failings in this sector that have meant that rather than be considered the best left-back in all of Europe, he lags behind, and for obvious reasons.

Tasked with defending as well as attacking the left flank in conjunction with his wingers, the Spaniard has shown aptitude in only one of these things. He has, on far too many occasions in this and preceding campaigns, been caught out of position to the detriment of the team. The Blaugranas’ defeat to Athletic Club in the Supercopa final best illustrates his sheer defensive ineptitude. He recorded two assists, which on its own was phenomenal, but on the flip side, he gave away two goals as a result of his complete lack of positional and spatial awareness. He was just about as much a blessing in attack as he was a curse in defence. That is, up until the introduction of the 3-5-2.

Offensive powerhouse, defensive slaughterhouse. (Photo via Imago)

Koeman sees Alba as indispensable for the team, and as such, he shaped up the team in such a way that it would accommodate him regardless of how he would perform. Thus far, this ambitious project has borne fruit. The 32-year-old has since scored two goals as well as provided two assists in La Liga, as his newfound offensive privileges have relieved him of all his backbreaking defensive duties.

Much as was the goal with the centre-backs, this new system has been put in place not to remedy previous issues but rather to paper over the cracks. For all the virtues the system has, it has done absolutely nothing to improve Alba’s — or Dest’s — defensive capabilities but rather conceal them by use of the back three.

It should stand to reason that if a manager has to change a system because he is incapable of placing any trust in his full-backs to defend, which is after all the bare minimum they have to offer, then there is a dire need to stir up things. The American has shown on several occasions that he is dextrous enough to alternate between his offensive and defensive responsibilities with relative ease. The Euro winner, however, has not.

The attack

More often than not, teams that take up a three/five-man backline use two strikers upfront. There are issues that have a detrimental impact on the 3-5-2 as a general formation and others that affect Barcelona in particular.

Much like the centre-backs and fullbacks have a toxic and symbiotic relationship with one another, the strikers do too. They tend to be excellent when partnered up with one another, but not so much so as sole strikers. Sebastian Haller and Luka Jovic formed a formidable partnership when deployed together in such a system at Eintracht Frankfurt, but once put asunder, they immediately regressed. 

A predictable regression. (Photo via Imago)

The opposition defence has to leak outwards to cope with the wingbacks, and in the process, stretches the centre beyond help. Consequently, with as many as three central midfielders, one of them can afford to rove into the final third, after which it essentially becomes a 3v2 scenario in the centre. The strikers can then exploit this space. Atalanta did this by using Alejandro Gomez as the focal point, while Antonio Conte’s Inter Milan does it by pushing one of Nicolo Barella or Stefan Sensei up. 

Moving to a single striker system, then, becomes a lot more complicated because you are not given this kind of space in the attack. 

At Barça, there is an entirely different set of issues at hand. To start, the team has no true striker but rather a false 9 and a winger in the form of Lionel Messi and Ousmane Dembele, respectively. The Frenchman has suffered greatly in the novel setup. While he has been on the receiving end of innumerable crosses from his teammates, his sheer inability to make hay while the golden sun shone brightly upon him has come back to haunt not only him but also his team.

Bar his inability to bury chances presented to him, he is simply incapable of forming partnerships with his teammates. As a result, he oftentimes finds himself isolated, much like an outsider looking in. his decision making is just as woeful as it was before, but this time, as the last man, they perhaps carry more weight.

Messi and Dembele cannot operate in the 3-5-2 for much longer. (Photo via Imago)

This setup reduces wingers to ashes. The likes of Alex Collado, Francisco Trincao, could each lose a place in the team if at all this setup is to be used in the long term. No winger has a place in it, which is quite ironic given how much of Barcelona’s history has been shaped by players of that position exactly.


In and of itself, the 3-5-2 is not a horrible formation but simply one that will fail to stand the test of time. It is an excellent formation should one require a dangerous attack and a defence capable of covering up its flaws, but in the long term, it will collapse in on itself. Teams such as Inter Milan, good as they are, are ticking timebombs. A managerial change is always around the corner in this fast-paced footballing world, and should Antonio Conte depart from the Nerazzurri, then the current Italian leaders could see a majority of their squad turn to deadwood in the blink of an eye.

The onus is on Ronald Koeman and the current board to discuss the way forward. The 4-3-3 is, has been, and will continue to be the way that Barcelona will best play their football. The team needs reinforcements and pruning of unwanted players in equal measure wherever necessary.

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